Should we take the vaccine against COVID-19?
1.The vaccine is HAZARDOUS. (1,2)
1.1. The vaccines being developed proceeded to clinical trials without completing the necessary pre-clinical and animal studies.
1.2. The danger that the vaccine might actually “enhance” the pathogenicity of the virus was ignored.
1.3. Initial clinical trial results for the COVID vaccine of Moderna and Oxford/Astra-Zeneca already show serious adverse events but were ignored.
1.4. The RNA vaccine technology used has never been used before in humans.
1.5. mRNA vaccines are incompletely understood. Potential safety concerns include local and systemic inflammation, biodistribution and persistence of expressed immunogen, autoimmunity, blood coagulation and pathological thrombus formation, among others.
1.6. Another danger of mRNA vaccines is the use of biotech “carrier systems” involving lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) and coating with polyethylene glycol(PEG). LNPs “encapsulate the mRNA constructs to protect them from degradation and promote cellular uptake” and rev up the immune system. LNPs could contribute to one or more of the following: immune reactions, infusion reactions, complement reactions, opsonation reactions, antibody reactions or reactions to the PEG, as well as adverse reactions within liver pathways. PEG can also provoke severe neuropsychiatric symptoms in offsprings, including mood swings, rage, phobias and paranoia. Investigators are now questioning biocompatibility and warning about PEGylated particles’ promotion of tumor growth and adverse immune responses that include “probably underdiagnosed” life-threatening anaphylaxis.
1.7. The adenoviral vector Covid-19 vaccines are also still experimental and have not been used before in mass vaccination for infectious diseases.
1.8. Virus-vectored vaccines could undergo recombination with naturally occurring viruses and produce hybrid viruses that could have undesirable properties affecting transmission or virulence. Possible outcomes of recombination are practically impossible to quantify.
1.9. Genetically engineered vaccines carry significant unpredictability and a number of inherent harmful potential hazards, such as: immunopathological reaction, autoimmunity, long-term tolerance, persistent infection and latent infections, emergence of mutant types of viruses, enhanced pathogenicity and unexpected serious adverse events (including death).
1.10. There is also the potential to transfer or recombine genetic material from genetically engineered viruses or GE virus-vector vaccines to individual germ line cells.
1.11. There could be chromosomal integration or insertional mutagenesis, resulting in
alterations of gene expression or activation of cellular oncogenes, thus raising the
possibility of inducing cancer.
1.12. New, hybrid virus progenies may have completely unpredictable characteristics, including virulence reversion.
1.13. The risks of recombination was raised in a meeting convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003. “Recombination of a live virus-vectored vaccine with a circulating or reactivated latent virus could theoretically generate a more pathogenic
1.14. Vaccines produced with cell cultures are often contaminated with naked nucleic acids, genomic fragments, retroviruses and other foreign materials that carry uncertain but potentially serious hazards.
1.15. Many candidate Covid-19 vaccines are produced on what is called “immortal” cell lines or cancerous types of cells that could spread cancer-promoting material into the human recipient.
1.16. US FDA stated in its website (08-10-2020): “ In some cases the cell lines that are used might be tumorigenic… Some of these tumor-forming cell lines may contain cancer-causing viruses that are not actively reproducing. Such viruses are hard to detect using standard methods. These latent, or “quiet,” viruses pose a potential threat, since
they might become active under vaccine manufacturing conditions.”
1.17. The manufacture of vaccines often use aborted fetal cells which contain cell debris and fetal DNA (together with its epigenetic modification) which cannot be fully eliminated during downstream purification, potentially causing cancer and autoimmunity in the vaccinated.
1.18. The danger of rushing a vaccine and allowing corporate interests driven by market forces to address people’s health needs have been shown in the recent past.
– The Dengvaxia vaccine fiasco in the Philippines: many of the vaccinated suffered or died after a botched mass vaccination program. According to the chief pathologist of the Public Attorney’s Office, 153 of those vaccinated with Dengvaxia had died as of February 18, 2020.
– HPV vaccine fiasco: In fast-tracking vaccine clinical safety trials of HPV (Human
Papilloma Virus) vaccine, the producers spiked their placebos with neurotoxic aluminum adjuvant and cut observation periods. Numerous adverse events, including life-threatening injuries, permanent disabilities, hospitalizations and deaths, were later reported after vaccination with the HPV vaccines.
1.19. The history of vaccination is replete with scientific evidence of adverse effects through enhanced pathogenicity, mutation, recombination, induced immune system dysfunction, and various non-specific effects following vaccination despite regulatory approval and prior clinical trials.
1.20. Safety assessments under the corporate dominated scientific milieu are grossly inadequate and oftentimes erroneous. Studies and clinical trials are done or sponsored by the very companies who sell the vaccines. There are no independent studies that could validate the claims of the vaccine manufacturers.
2. Efficacy is highly questionable. (1,2)
2.1. The main indicator used to assess efficacy is the ability to induce production of antibodies, which has not been shown historically to be a reliable indicator for actual clinical efficacy.
2.2. The virus elicits a complex array of immunopathologic reactions that are not
accounted for by the vaccines.
2.3. Pre-clinical/clinical studies are inadequate, often show conflicting results and cannot be reliably extrapolated to actual clinical situations.
2.4. Existing data on Covid-19 recovered patients show that the antibodies wane over a short period of time and exhibit large patient variability in antibody levels.
2.5. Reinfection of Covid-19 patients who have recovered are common, showing lack of
development of immunity from their encounter with the virus.
2.6. Previous experience show that many vaccines deemed “safe and effective” by the WHO, governments and mainstream medicine have actually been proven to be unsafe and ineffective in the long-term.
2.7. The Covid-19 virus shows a high frequency of mutation such that an “effective” vaccine developed for the current strains of the circulating virus will most likely not be effective for the mutated future virus strains.
2.8. There are still a lot of unknowns and uncertainties in the characteristics of the Covid-19 virus that could alter current assessments of safety and efficacy. Even if current clinical trials are deemed “successful” by mainstream medicine and institutions, it cannot be scientifically valid to conclude that the vaccines have been “proven safe and effective,” especially over the long-term.
3. The vaccine manufacturers and promoters cannot be trusted.
3.1. Vaccine manufacturers have a history of criminal and other malfeasance including fraud, conduct of unethical clinical trials, tax evasion, bribery, misrepresentation and others.
– Sanofi Record of Criminal Behaviour: A whistleblowing former paralegal at drug giant Sanofi is now claiming she was aware of “many instances” where Sanofi lawyers destroyed documents to avoid turning them over to opponents in prior legal cases.
– Ponte’s suit, filed last year, claims she learned of an alleged scheme at Sanofi to pay more than $30 million in kickbacks to promote the company’s diabetes drugs. The suit came a year after the France-based drug company already agreed to pay more than $100 million to the U.S. federal government to settle other claims related to alleged kickbacks to doctors, and seven months after Sanofi agreed to pay a nearly $40 million fine in Germany in connection with two employees who were convicted there of paying bribes to boost drug sales. (3)
– Big Pharma Record of Malfeasance: June 19 2014, Logroño, Spain: Attorney Don Manuel Sáez Ochoa filed a criminal complaint against Merck-Sanofi Pasteur Laboratories, Spanish National Health authorities…for injuries and disabilities suffered by Zuriñe after the administration of Gardasil. The complaint states that (the company) failed to use an inert placebo during clinical trials, thereby manipulating data and marketing Gardasil under false pretences. Despite complaints of several young women with similar new medical conditions after Gardasil injections, the Spanish health authorities ignored calls for a moratorium…health authorities had adequate knowledge regarding the potential harmful effects of Gardasil and chose to recommend administration of the HPV vaccine anyway. (4)
3.2. Big Pharma, WHO, US CDC, UNICEF, governments and medical authorities have misled the public about vaccines.
3.2.1. What do Big Pharma and authorities say?
“Immunization prevents between 2 &3 million deaths a year.”
What is the basis of the claim?
The 2.5 million estimate has always been cited by public health organizations and can be traced back to the 2009 WHO report State of the world’s vaccines and immunization, written primarily by commissioned journalist John Maurice, whose clients, apart from
WHO, included vaccine supplier GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance and vaccine manufacturer Novartis. No scientific study has been cited to backup the claim.
What are the facts?
According to data collected by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington in Seattle, more than two-thirds of children under five years of age who die each year die of causes other than diseases for which vaccines are available. The number of children under five years old dying every year has fallen from 12.7 million in 1990 to 8.8 million in 2008 (WHO-UNICEF). Which means that during the 18 years preceding the WHO’s 2009 report, the number of children under five years of age dying prematurely had dropped by an average of 216,666.7 annually. The best the WHO could have been able to say in 2009 was that vaccines prevented just under 217,000 deaths of children in this age range, worldwide in one year. Since more than two-thirds of children under five years of age who die each year die of causes other than diseases for which vaccines are available, the corrected estimate should be 217,000 divided by 3 or72,333/yr, which is still an over-estimation of preventable deaths by vaccination because this does not take into account deaths due to causes other than being unvaccinated and deaths of the vaccinated.(5)
3.2.2. CDC cover-up of their own findings: CDC experts knew that Thimerosal (mercury) in vaccines was damaging children. Dr. Tom Verstraeten, a CDC epidemiologist had analyzed the agency’s massive Vaccine Safety Datalink database containing thousands of medical records of vaccinated children. He declared: “We have found statistically significant relationships between exposure [to mercury in vaccines] and outcomes. At two months of age, developmental delay; exposure at three months, tics; at six months, attention deficit disorder. Exposures at one, three and six months, language and speech delays — the entire category of neurodevelopmental delays.” Instead of making this important information public, authorities hatched a plan to produce additional “studies” that denied such a link. In fact, vaccine proponents had the audacity to claim in subsequent papers that mercury in vaccines not only doesn’t hurt children but that it actually benefits them! In the topsy-turvy world of overreaching vaccine authorities, the well-documented neurotoxic chemical mercury somehow makes children smarter and more functional, improving cognitive development and motor skills. (6)
3.2.3. Big Pharma cover-up of serious adverse effects: Even when a serious adverse event is detected, this is usually swept under the rug. For example, initial clinical trial results for
the COVID vaccine of Moderna reportedly showed that three of the 15 human experimental subjects in the high dose group suffered serious and medically significant symptoms. Moderna, however, concluded that the vaccine was “generally safe and well tolerated” which the corporate dominated media dutifully reported, covering-up the real
danger from the vaccine. (7)
3.2.4 Vaccine Safety Mis-Information from the Center for Disease Control (CDC), U.S.A.
220.127.116.11.”The safety of vaccines is thoroughly studied before they are licensed for public use.” – False
18.104.22.168.”There is not a plausible biologic reason to believe vaccines would cause any serious long-term effects.” – False
22.214.171.124.“Receiving combination vaccines or several different vaccines during one visit is safe
and offers the quickest protection against multiple diseases.” – False
126.96.36.199.“Vaccination is a highly effective, easy way to keep your family healthy.” – False
188.8.131.52.“We all need vaccines throughout our lives to help protect against serious diseases.
Immunization is our best protection against these diseases.” – False
184.108.40.206.”Your child’s immune system produces immunity following vaccination the same as it would following “natural” infection with a disease. The difference is that the child doesn’t have to get sick first.” – False
3.3. Big Pharma exerts effective control over vaccine research, funding, information, policies, and practically everything related to vaccines.
Summary Observations – The credibility of the CDC, WHO, public health authorities and mainstream health professionals have been seriously eroded because of corporatization, conflicts of interests, dishonesty, corruption and misrepresentation. People have good reasons to be wary of vaccines. Too much reliance on vaccines to address infectious diseases is not congruent with the current body of scientific knowledge about the immune system, microbial ecology and the intimate relationship of humans with the environment.
4. The science behind vaccination is highly questionable.
4.1. The reductionist thinking and science behind the vaccination dogma is outmoded. At that time, there was barely an understanding of the infinitely complex nature and behaviour of the immune system, interrelationships of humans, microbes and environment, social determinants and other factors. It was not known that viruses and other microbes have been playing important role in the evolution and survival of all life forms, performing critical physiologic functions that maintain homeostasis and a robust immune system.
4.2. Rather than cultivating harmony and co-existence, the money-making power elite
institutions and their agents, including the corporate-controlled medical establishment, have pushed for mass vaccinations with the aim of total elimination of target microbes. This thinking is not only irrational but also contrary to contemporary objective scientific knowledge.
4.3. “It is considered unethical to conduct randomized trials with already recommended vaccines to measure their overall effect on morbidity even though these effects were never measured…two vaccines may have completely different effects when administered simultaneously…Although tens and thousands of studies assessing disease-specific, antibody-inducing effect of vaccines have been conducted, most people have not examined whether vaccines have non-specific effects because current perception excludes such effects.”(8)
5.The risks far outweigh potential benefits.
5.1.The foregoing discussion (The vaccine is HAZARDOUS, Efficacy is highly questionable, The vaccine manufacturers and promoters cannot be trusted, The science behind vaccination is highly questionable) clearly show that the risks of taking any Covid-19 vaccine in the pipeline far outweigh the potential benefits. Rigorous safety assessment, including adequate, double-blind, randomized, and true placebo-controlled clinical trials and an honest-to-goodness risk-benefit assessment, have never been done by the manufacturers or supposedly reputable institutions recommending the vaccines. Safety has always been based on flawed assumptions and corporate science, not on real science. In addition, the following historical examples of vaccine risks should alert us that the risks are real and are not trivial.
5.1.2. Study in Guinea Bissau, Africa (9)
Children vaccinated with DTP w/ or w/o OPV Vs Children Not Yet Vaccinated
Compared deaths within 3-5 month of age
Period analysed: 1981-83
Mortality: Vaccinated Vs Unvaccinated
Unvaccinated = 4.5 (Mortality Rate)
Vaccinated = 21.6 (Mortality Rate);
Mean Hazard Ratio = 6.7
5.1.3. Deaths After Pentavalent Vaccine, India. (10)
Vaccinated – 1,806,459
Deaths = 51 or 1 in 35,420.71
Yet, the oft-repeated claim of the vaccine industry, the CDC, governments, mainstream medical authorities and mainstream media is that death caused by vaccination is only 1 in a million!
5.2.Various disease related genes activated after vaccination . (11)
Infants after DtaP-polio-Hib vaccination at 3 and 5 months:
– 33 allergy-related genes activated
– 66 asthma related genes activated
– 67 cancer genes were up-regulated
– 25 immunological disease genes up-regulated
5.3.Vaccines and Immune Disease Adjuvants and preservatives included in vaccines enhance pathogen specific immune responses and the potential of noxious effects of adjuvants for the recipient humans and animals. They not only enhance antigenic stimulation but also are capable of inducing auto-antibodies, inflammation,
aberrant manifestations of arthritis, neuronal damage, encephalitis, myocarditis, vasculitis sclerosing lipogranulomas, silicone-scleraderma, SLE (Systemic Lupus erythematosus), RA (rheumatoid arthritis).(12)
5.4.When mass immunization campaigns were initiated in the 1950s, the number of reported cases of polio following mass inoculations with the killed-virus vaccine was significantly greater than before mass inoculations. The polio vaccines that were supposedly responsible for the dramatic decline in polio from 1955 onwards. However, the “decline” in polio during those years was more a result of various factors other than the vaccine. Polio did not disappear, it was just given another name, Acute Flaccid Paralysis. Prior to 1996, there is no data prior to 1996 at the WHO website. Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) was just another name for what would have been called polio in 1955 and was used to describe a sudden onset of paralysis. It was the most common sign of acute polio and used for surveillance during polio outbreaks. AFP is also associated with a number of other pathogenic agents including enteroviruses, echoviruses, and adenoviruses, among others. But in 1955, there was no attempt to detect anything other than polio in cases of AFP. Once the vaccine was mass marketed, polio was redefined and polio started to decline rapidly and the decline was then attributed to the polio vaccine.(13)
6.There are much better alternatives in the treatment and management of the Covid-19 pandemic.
6.1.Ivermectin treatment protocol (with or without other drugs and supplements)
6.1.1 Other drugs in the treatment of Covid-19: Vitamin C, Steroids, Hydroxychloroquine, Fluvoxamine, Doxycycline, Azythromycin
6.1.2 Supplements added to ivermectin protocol: Vitamin D, Zinc, Selenium, Melatonin
6.2.Protecting and Strengthening the immune system.
6.2.1. Avoid or manage physical disruptors of the immune system:
– Ionizing radiation (food contaminated with radionuclides, ex. salmon, tuna, etc.; radioactive materials; nuclear power plants; high background radiation areas)
– Non-ionizing radiation (EMF): 5G, EMF emitting gadgets, high voltage lines and equipment, etc.
– Physical injury, trauma, lack of sleep, extreme physical activity, physical restraint,
isolation, suffocation, heat stress, cold stress, crowding,etc.
6.2.2. Avoid or manage chemical disruptors of the immune system:
– Pesticides (chlorpyrifos, glyphosate, paraquat, carbofuran, cypermethrin,etc)
– Petrochemicals, industrial chemicals (ex. toluene, methylene chloride, benzene, etc.) and persistent toxic substances (plastics, flame retardants, etc), air pollutant emissions
– Heavy metals (e.g. mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium, etc), endocrine disruptors,
– Synthetic cleaning agents, food additives, nanoparticles, etc.
6.2.3. Avoid or manage biological disruptors of the immune system:
– Genetically Modified Organisms (microbes, plants,etc)
– Pathogenic microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi,etc)
– Parasitic organisms
– Nutritional deficiencies
– Underlying disease or abnormality
– Too much or too little exercise
6.2.4. Avoid or manage spiritual/psychological disruptors of the immune system:
-Psychological torture, bullying, oppression, threats,etc.
-Fanaticism, exceptionalism, racism, bigotry, prejudice.
-Selfish, arrogant, condescending behavior
-Lack of social consciousness
-Silence in the face of social oppression and violations of human rights
-Ignorance, subservience, apathy and defeatism in the midst of social injustice
-Utter disregard of humanistic qualities, moral and spiritual values
6.2.5. Dismantle social disruptors of the immune system:
-Systematically imposed social dominance and control.
-Outright occupation, neo-colonialism, semi-feudalism, Imperialism, monopoly
-Chronic dependency and underdevelopment, poverty, worsening social inequity.
-Dictatorship, authoritarianism, militarization, national security and perpetual terror
-Corporate control of science and technology, health systems, essential public utilities
and industries, land and agricultural resources, food production and distribution, etc.
-Corporate control of telecommunications, media, education, entertainment, sports,
cultural events, etc.
-Exploitation and displacement of communities and indigenous peoples.
-Discrimination and exploitation of women, children and other groups.
-Widespread violation of human rights
-Global superpower rivalry leading to ever-increasing threats of biowarfare pandemics
and nuclear annihilation
6.3.Some specific mitigating measures to strengthen the immune system.
6.3.1. Ensure adequate general nutritional status
6.3.2. Nutrient supplementation as needed
– Vitamin C
– Vitamin A
– Vitamin D
– Other vitamins (E, B complex, etc.)
– Omega-3 fatty acids
– Essential minerals (zinc, selenium, magnesium)
6.3.3. Fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants and other nutrient supplementation (antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, etc.)
– Citrus and other fruits (lime, lemon, orange, guava, kiwi, mulberry, etc)
– Vitamin A rich vegetables (ex. moringa leaves, okra, radish, jute leaves (saluyot),
taro leaves, chilies, carrots, beet, etc)
– Omega-3 fatty acid rich foods (fish oil, nuts, seeds)
– Mineral rich foods (fish, meat, nuts, legumes)
– Medicinal plants (ex. Curcuma longa, Andrographis paniculata, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Cannabis sativa, Zingiber officinale, Alium sativum, Melissa officinalis, Eucalyptus spp., Menthae spp., Thymus vugaris, Origanum vulgare, Ocimum basilicum, Piper nigrum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Morus alba, Spondias pinnata, Phyllanthus emblica), Seaweeds, Virgin Coconut oil.)
6.3.4. Maintain a healthy microbiome at all times
– Avoid inappropriate use of antibiotics, antimicrobials, antiseptics.
– Liberal intake of microbiome friendly foods (high fiber foods: fruits, vegetables, mushrooms, etc).
– Intermittent intake of fermented foods, drinks, probiotics and prebiotics (fermented vegetables and fruits, kimchi, miso, yogurt, kefir, etc).
– Avoid too much intake of sugary foods, fatty foods, processed foods with synthetic chemical additives; meat, processed cow’s milk, salty food, junk food.
– Eat regularly a biodiverse and balanced diet.
6.3.5. Alternative medicine modalities: Homeopathy, Acupuncture, Mindfulness meditation, Yoga, Tai chi/Qi gong.
6.3.6 Appropriate exercises
6.4. Other viable treatment and supportive modalities: Interferon alpha/beta, Leronlimab, Tocilizumab, Favipiravir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, Chinese medicine (combinations), Stem cell, Convalescent plasma.
6.5. Addressing the social determinants of the pandemic.
Some general measures to address the most fundamental threats:
6.5.1. Precautionary, preventive, and protective measures (laws, policies, governance, etc. at all levels ), immediate and long-term, against as many threats as possible especially during the most vulnerable developmental period of the immune system (i.e.,conception, fetal development, birth, infancy and childhood).
6.5.2. Mass awareness raising and education of the people, especially would be mothers, on the extreme importance of the immune system on the health and survival of succeeding generations of humankind.
6.5.3. Confront the underlying social/structural threats to the immune system and people’s health at the local, national, regional and international levels.
– Build, unify, and strengthen people’s movements for social justice and equity, genuine peace basic human rights, civil and political rights, environmental justice, toxics-free future, etc.
– Struggle for the dismantling of the neoliberal, corporate globalization world order.
– Struggle for the implementation of genuine agrarian reform and rural development.
– Ensure the enjoyment of socio-economic rights (i.e., gainful and safe employment, health,
education, housing, etc.
– Struggle for women and children’s rights, indigenous and other sectoral rights.
– Propagate a progressive and liberative mass culture.
So, what needs to be done?
A wareness raising
N etworking among groups
T echnical capacity building
I nformation exchange/monitoring
D eepening of understanding
O rganizing concerned people
T ransformative action
E mpowerment of people
- Quijano RF. Hazards of the COVID-19 vaccine.
- Quijano RF. COVID-19 Vaccine-Concerns and Alternatives.
- Gardasil Vaccine: Spain Joins Growing List of Countries to File Criminal Complaints
https://healthimpactnews.com-Gardasil Vaccine: Spain Joins Growing List of
Countries to File Criminal Complaints
- Vaccine Safety Tricks and Tips by Neil Z. Miller, 2013
- Vaccine Trial Catastrophe: Moderna Vaccine has 20% ‘Serious’ Injury Rate in High Dose Group
- Benn CS, Netea MG, Selin LK, Aaby P. A small jab – a big effect: nonspecific
immunomodulation by vaccines. Trends Immunol. 2013;34(9):431-439.
- Mogensen SW, Andersen A, Rodrigues A, Benn CS, Aaby P. The Introduction of
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Oral Polio Vaccine Among Young Infants in an
Urban African Community: A Natural Experiment. EBioMedicine. 2017;17:192-198.
- Are some states under-reporting pentavalent vaccine deaths?
- Lahdenperä AI, Nilsson LJ, Regnström K. Kinetics of asthma- and allergy-associated
immune response gene expression
in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated infants after in vitro re-
stimulation with vaccine antigen.
Vaccine. 2008;26(14):1725-1730. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.01.041. PMID 18336961
- Vaccines and Autoimmunity. Yehuda Shoenfeld, Nancy Agmon-Levin and Lucija
Tomljenovic, Editors. 2015. Wiley Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 978-1-118-66343-1
Additional information materials:
- The polio scare and the return of dengvaxia.
- Humphries, S. & Bystrianyk, R.. (2014). Dissolving Illusions: Disease, Vaccines,
and the Forgotten History. CreateSpace Independent Publishing.
- Quijano, RF. Measles-epidemic-the-real-cause-of-deaths.
- HERD IMMUNITY WITH DR. Humphries
- The Truth About Vaccines Docu-series – Episode 1.
19.The Network of Global Corporate Control. Vitali,S. et al., PLoS ONE, 1 October 2011,
Volume 6, Issue 10.
Romeo F. Quijano MD is a retired professor of the Dept. of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Manila. He is a lifelong health and environmental activist.